CARTOGRAPHER'S NOTESMap of the Sandwich Isles by Artist / Cartographer Blaise Domino
The same spirit of adventure that propelled the original migrants to Hawai'i was nevermore evident than during the time of Capt. James Cook's rediscovery of the Islands.
...I have chosen this volatile and pivotal point in the history of these twodynamic and disparate cultures.
I have attempted to balance the natural beauty of the land and the Hawaiian culture withhistorical personalities and events.
It is my purpose to create beauty within this context. Mindful of accuracy and imagerywhich convey this spirit of discovery, nature and cultural exchange, I have chosen symbolsand devices not always chronologically correct.
Old maps to me represent a quiet authority and grace that as keepers of history and informationoccupy a unique place in art.
To satisfy art lovers, historians and map purists, the following will seek to enlighten andenrich your experience of the "MAP OF THE SANDWICH ISLES."
The Hawaiian Islands were named by Capt. Cook "The Sandwich Isles" in honor of theEarl of Sandwich, First Lord of the British Admiralty who sponsored Cook's voyages ofdiscovery.
I have taken a modern approach in designing an old map, thus the viewer at first glancemay notice that the islands are contemporary in shape and, while proportionally correct,are moved closer together to accommodate the composition.
The border, an important design element, is slightly awry, as are the longitude and latitudelines and degree numbers. In this, the old world inaccuracies survive.
The art work on each side can be viewed separately or read as one bay. The mountains onthe left and above the cartouche are intended to represent a generic Hawaiian landscape,while on the right above the compass, Kealakekua Bay is more specific although somewhatromanticized.
The cartouche has two out-of-chronology elements at the top: the crown is from KingDavid Kaläkaua, a later time in the history of Hawai'i. I particularly like the appearance ofthis crown and it acts as a precursor of the European influence to come. The armorial seal,located at the bottom, was awarded to Capt. Cook posthumously by his government inappreciation for his significant contribution in exploration and chartmaking.
The ship Resolution and chief Kalanioupu'u's canoes and company are closely representative.As the chief sails out to welcome Capt. Cook, I have depicted this momentous eventwith gifts and music, drums, rattles and conch along with ceremonial staffs and weapons.After all, they were ostensibly going out to meet Lono the god of the Makahiki (harvest)and they must have been joyous and apprehensive.
The compass was designed again from the stand point of the two cultures coming together.Elements from the statehood coin of 1959 and tapa (cloth) make up the design flavor. Also,I have substituted the older Hawaiian seal of the Ali'i (royalty), two male chiefs, with themodern male chief and female Liberty.
Kealakekua Bay is positioned above the compass, which is pointing to the upper left corner,creating a more dynamic composition but does not represent true or magnetic north.Note the change in spelling of the bay on the island of Hawai'i where Capt. Cook waskilled (Karakakooa Bay). Further each island has the spelling which reflects what theEuropeans thought they heard the Hawaiians saying. Most of these names are phoneticallyclose, although it is unclear how they derived Atooi from Kaua'i.
Each island has been represented topographically with the same treatment that I used onthe Offical State of Hawaii Transportation Map (1981-1999). Geologically there has beenlittle change. Kilauea was erupting than as now. And to show more realism. I display a 45degree angle aerial view.
With limited space, each image must be carefully chosen to convey the spirit of eachlocale. Starting in the upper left corner:
KAUA'I (Atooi) has a sacred heiau (temple) at the location of Capt. Cook's first sightingof Hawai'i. The yellow broad bill headpiece was a design particular to this island.
O'AHU (Woahoo) was the breadbasket of the Hawaiian islands and abounded with agricultureand aquaculture. The Rainbow Man petroglyph was specific to that area (Nu'uanu).
MOLOKAI'I (Morotoi) was well known as the island of strong Mana (Spirit) and this sorceryimage was used in sacred rituals.
LANA'I (Ranai) has the "flying men" petroglyph.
MAUI (Mowee) was ruled by the powerful and famous tatooed "tabu" chief Kahekili who,it was said, would spare the life of a law breaker if he were to pass on his dark tatooed side.
HAWAI'I (Owhyee) was where Capt. Cook first landed and was subsequently killed aftera misunderstanding over the theft of one of Cook's boats. The war temple and personaltemple of Kamehameha I were very sacred places. The petroglyphs appear to representfamily and are specific to those areas shown.
The inset (upper right corner) has a two globe world map. In maps of this period it wouldbe more common to use a close-up of Kealakekua Bay. I have opted instead to use thisworld map in part because it is more visually interesting and as the annotation below indicates,this map shows Hawai'i's location for only the second time and was the first mapnoting the site of Capt. Cook's death. This redesigned map by Samuel Dunn also affordsme the opportunity to place myself in an historical cartographic context (see scroll).
Interpreting history through an old map, I have on occasion chosen esthetics over literalaccuracy. I have done so because I wanted to emphasize the natural wonder of Hawai'i andthe beauty of old maps while conveying the spirit of both cultures.
Published by PICTURE MAP COMPANY, 1993 P.O. Box 88468, Honolulu, HI 96830-8468 o Ph: (808) 737-3777 o email: firstname.lastname@example.org o Website: www.blaisedomino.com